Henry Dodd: The Faithful Servant

By David Morgan

supported by a Parramatta City Council Community Grant – St. John’s First Fleeters

 

No man is a hero to his own valet; not, however, because the man is not a hero, but because the valet is a valet, whose dealings are with the man not as a hero, but as one who eats, drinks, and wears clothes, in general, with the individuality of his needs and ideas.

— GWF Hegel[1]

“What gentlemen?” the lad had said. “A lot of rich bastards with nothing between their ears who just exploited you.”

And Skullion had put down his pint and said, “A gentleman stood for something. It wasn’t what he was. It was what he knew he ought to be. And that’s something you will never know.” Not what they were but what they ought to be, like some old battle standard that you followed because it was a symbol of the best. A ragged tattered piece of cloth that stood for something and gave you confidence and something to fight for.

— Tom Sharpe[2]

The valet, the butler, the manservant: they are common characters in English fiction, and their often complex relationships with their masters a common subject. P.G. Wodehouse’s Jeeves is continually pulling Bertie Wooster out of ‘scrapes.’ In Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel The Remains of the Day, Stevens the butler remains steadfastly loyal to Lord Darlington, despite the cost to his own emotional life. In the television series Downton Abbey, the Earl of Grantham gives his wounded Boer War batman Bates a job as his valet and stands by him even when he is charged with murder. And in Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger’s 1943 film The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, the title character Clive Wynne-Candy’s First World War batman Murdoch also follows him into civilian life and becomes his butler; when Murdoch is killed in the Blitz, Wynne-Candy’s death notice for him in The Times calls him ‘my friend and comrade in two great wars.’

In the story of Henry Dodd, whose memorial plaque in St. John’s Cemetery, Parramatta describes him as ‘Faithful servant of Governor Philip, Late Supt of Convicts,’ we find a real life example of the ideal servant celebrated in fiction.[3] He came to Australia, not as a convict, but as an experienced farm hand who had worked for Arthur Phillip on his estate at Lyndhurst in England. And while the convict James Ruse is commonly given the credit for having—to quote his apparently self-carved gravestone—‘sowd the forst grain [sic]’[4] in the colony, it was Dodd who first successfully grew crops at Farm Cove and then at Rose Hill (Parramatta), to the great relief of his master Governor Phillip.

From Shropshire to the New Forest

Dodd, the son of Ralph and Sarah, was baptised ‘Henry Edward’ on 1 September 1748 at St. Luke’s Church, Hodnet; a northerly village in the county of Shropshire, lying in the west of England between Birmingham and the border with Wales.[5] Located near the town of Market Drayton, the name Hodnet derives from the Old Welsh hawdd and nant meaning ‘pleasant valley’[6] and is still rich farming country, despite also being close to the cradle of the Industrial Revolution, Ironbridge Gorge.

St-Lukes-Church-2010

St. Luke’s Church, a Norman structure, was built c.1083 on the site of an earlier wooden chapel which had previously served the village. In the fourteenth century the church was extended and restored with a distinctive octagonal tower added. Photo credit: Geoff Potter, Hodnet, www.hodnet.org.uk

Although cities were growing exponentially from the eighteenth century onwards, rural to urban movement was not the most common migration experience for many people: short-distance moves within and between similar settlements were dominant.[7] And so it was with the teenaged Dodd who, around 1763, moved south and became a farm labourer at Vernals.[8] It was here that Dodd came into Arthur Phillip’s employ and first impressed him with his abilities.[9]

At the time of their meeting, Phillip had recently served in the navy during the Seven Years’ War and risen to the rank of lieutenant. With the coming of peace in 1763, he retired on half-pay, acquired the properties Vernals Farm and Glasshayes in the village of Lyndhurst in Hampshire’s New Forest, and also married — although, by 1769 he and his wife were separated. The next fourteen years saw only interrupted naval service; some months in HMS Egmont in 1770-71, then in the Portuguese fleet in South American waters in 1774-78 before returning to the Royal Navy, only to be retired again in 1784 with the end of the American War of Independence. These periods of enforced retirement at Lyndhurst gave Phillip exposure to farming.[10]

Voyage to New South Wales

Dodd was in his late thirties when he joined HMS Sirius on 27 December 1786. He sailed out to New South Wales with Phillip on Sirius as a civilian passenger, although he signed on as an ‘Ab’ (able bodied seaman) and remained one until his death.[11]

The First Fleet left Portsmouth on 13 May 1787, stopping at Tenerife from 3 to 10 June, and at Rio de Janeiro from 5 August to 4 September, arriving in Cape Town on 13 October. As well as farm animals, the Fleet took on seeds and plants at both Rio and the Cape.[12] The Fleet left Cape Town on 12 November, with Phillip transferring to HMS Supply on 25 November and going ahead with three other fast ships, Alexander, Scarborough and Friendship, ‘in hopes, by leaving the convoy, to gain sufficient time for examining the country round Botany Bay, so as to fix on the situation most eligible for the colony, before the transports should arrive.’[13] It is not clear whether Dodd joined him; it seems likely, though, as he was aboard as Phillip’s personal servant. This detachment arrived at Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, but the rest of the Fleet had kept up and arrived within two days, helped along by the winds in the ‘Roaring Forties’ which, according to Lieutenant Ralph Clark on the Friendship, had blow[n] So hard’ he had not even been able to ‘Sit to write.’[14]

Sowing the First Seeds

Planting vegetables was a matter of urgency to prevent the population from contracting scurvy, so when Dodd was discharged from Sirius on 1 February 1788 he was appointed as farm superintendent.[15] As soon as Phillip’s temporary house was raised, surrounding ground was enclosed and seeds for beans, peas and salad greens were planted.[16] Dodd, described by Watkin Tench as ‘a competent person of [Phillip’s] own household,’ was put in charge of the convicts working there.[17]

The soil at Farm Cove proved to be poor, so the search for a fertile, well-watered site for farming began.[18] On 24 April 1788 Phillip found what he was looking for in Burramatta (the place ‘where eels lie down’): the Burramattagal’s traditional hunting grounds.[19] He had led a small party to a bend in the Parramatta River called The Crescent, so-called because it had cut ‘a semi-circular shape into the hill whilst the river formed a [fresh water] billabong below.’[20] He named the hill at the top of The Crescent ‘Rose Hill’ after George Rose, Secretary of the Treasury.[21] As Phillip described the site: ‘At the head of this harbor there is a creek which at half flood has water for large boats to go three miles up, and one mile higher the water is fresh and the soil good.’[22] Another major part of the attraction of this location noted by First Fleet surgeon George Worgan was that during their ‘Excursions Inland’ the colonists had been greeted with ‘a great Extent of Park-like Country and…Trees of a moderate Size at a moderate Distance from each other….[T]he Soil,’ continued Worgan, was ‘apparently fitted to produce any kind of Grain, and clothed with extraordinarily luxuriant Grass…It is something singular, that all, of this kind of Trees, and many others, appear to have been partly burnt, the Bark of them being like Charcoal.’[23] The land was so welcomingly ‘Park-like’ because it had already been ‘prepared’ by indigenous land management practices using fire.

On 2 November 1788, therefore, Phillip chose and marked out a fortified camp within those ideal Burramattagal hunting lands ‘upon the rising ground’[24] of the hill at The Crescent and, in so doing, established the colony’s major township; a town that in succeeding years ceased to be known as Rose Hill in preference for an Anglicised version of the Burramattagal name: ‘Parramatta.’ The location of that original camp is identifiable today as the grassy area between the Parramatta River and the left side of Old Government House in the present-day World Heritage listed convict site, Parramatta Park.[25]

‘One in every respect qualified…’

Phillip had initially put James Smith in charge at Rose Hill, but Smith quickly proved unequal to the task. He replaced him with Dodd, a ‘very industrious man who I brought from England,’ who soon had ‘under his direction one hundred convicts,…employed in clearing and cultivating the ground.’[26] By July 1789, progress at Rose Hill with Dodd in charge was such that Judge Advocate David Collins was able to report:

[The] convicts were all found residing in very good huts, apparently under proper regulations, and encouraged to work in the gardens, which they had permission to cultivate during those hours which were not dedicated to public labour. A barrack for the soldiers was erected in the small redoubt which had been constructed, and in which also stood the provision store. Some ground had been opened on the other side of the stream of water which ran into the creek, where a small house had been built for the superintendant [sic] Dodd, under whose charge were to be placed a barn and granaries, in which the produce of the ground he was then filling with wheat and barley was to be deposited. The people of all descriptions continued very healthy; and the salubrity of the climate rendered medicine of little use.[27] 

Phillip and Dodd’s close relationship continued. For example, while Phillip waited for the first Government House to be built at the top of Rose Hill, he reported ‘sleep[ing] on the boards’ of Dodd’s ‘small house’ at the Government Farm ‘on the other side of the stream,’ near the present-day Noller Bridge in Parramatta Park. Phillip’s antagonistic Lieutenant-Governor, Marine Major Robert Ross, had accused him at the time of going off on ‘parties of pleasure,’ to which Phillip retorted that ‘a complaint in my side’ had ‘rendered the fatigues of examining the country round us not parties of pleasure, but parties in which nothing but a sense of duty and necessity would make me engage.’[28] No doubt Dodd’s hospitality and companionship went some way towards making the journey bearable.

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Dodd’s Farm (The Government Farm) in Parramatta Park, as viewed from the site of the “Redoubt” just in front of the present-day Old Government House. Photo: Michaela Ann Cameron (April 2014)

Over the succeeding months, the Rose Hill settlement continued to advance as a direct result of Dodd’s unparalleled leadership. In October, for example, Collins noted that the military guard put in place to protect the stores at Rose Hill had been reduced:

Mr. Dodd, who had for some time been authorized by the governor to inflict corporal punishment on the convicts for idleness, rioting, or other misdemeanors, had obtained such an influence over them, that military coercion was not so necessary as when the settlement was first established. Of this person, the officers who had been on duty at Rose Hill from time to time gave the most favourable reports, speaking of him as one in every respect qualified to execute the trust which had been reposed in him by the governor.[29]

In December the harvest at Rose Hill was got in; and according to Phillip, ‘the corn was exceeding good. About two hundred bushels [5.44 tonnes] of wheat and sixty of barley, with a small quantity of flax, Indian corn, and oats, all which is preserved for seed.’[30] Phillip was now asking for free settlers to be sent out to manage the convicts, as Dodd had done:

At present I have only one person (who has about an hundred convicts under his direction) who is employed in cultivating the ground for the publick [sic] benefit, and he has returned the quantity of corn above mentioned into the publick store. The officers have not raised sufficient to support the little stock they have…The numbers employed in cultivation will of course be increased, as the necessary buildings are finished, but which will be a work of time; for the numbers in this settlement who do nothing towards their own support exceed those employed for the public.[31]

A few days before Christmas, Dodd cut and sent a cabbage weighing twenty-six pounds (11.8 kg) down to Sydney: the products of his garden were now ‘plentiful and luxuriant.’[32]

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Some corellas beneath a tree standing in what was once Dodd’s Farm (the Government Farm) in present-day Parramatta Park. Photo: Michaela Ann Cameron [April 2014]

In July 1790, Dodd’s ‘good conduct and industry’ at Rose Hill led Phillip to ‘recommend him as meriting three shillings per diem for the time he has been employed.’[33] While some wheat and barley remained from the last harvest, the situation remained precarious: ‘[This] settlement,’ wrote Phillip to Lord Grenville, ‘has never had more than one person to superintend the clearing and cultivating ground for the public benefit or has been the means of bringing a single bushel of grain into the public granary. One or two others have been so employed for a short time, but removed as wanting either industry or probity; and,’ Phillip warned, ‘should the person who has at present the entire management of all the convicts employed in clearing and cultivating the land be lost, there is not anyone in the settlement to replace him.’[34] More superintendents needed to be sent out, Phillip explained, as Dodd, ‘the person who at present has that charge, will not settle in the country…I brought him from England, and he is engaged for the time I may remain in this country…’ In other words, Dodd would go wherever Phillip went.[35]

Watkin Tench, an Officer in the Marines, toured Rose Hill on 16 November 1790 and met Dodd, ‘who conducts everything here in the agricultural line.’ They had a detailed conversation about Dodd’s progress:

He estimates the quantity of cleared and cultivated land at 200 acres [80.9 hectares]. Of these fifty-five are in wheat, barley, and a little oats, thirty in maize, and the remainder is either just cleared of wood, or is occupied by buildings, gardens, etc. Four enclosures of twenty acres each, are planned for the reception of cattle, which may arrive in the colony, and two of these are already fenced in. In the centre of them is to be erected a house, for a person who will be fixed upon to take care of the cattle. All these enclosures are supplied with water; and only a part of the trees which grew in them being cut down, gives to them a very park-like and beautiful appearance…

Our survey commenced on the north side of the river. Dod [sic] says he expects this year’s crop of wheat and barley from the fifty-five acres to yield full 400 bushels [10.886 tonnes]. Appearances hitherto hardly indicate so much. He says he finds the beginning of May the best time to sow barley, but that it may continue to be sown until August. That sown in May is reaped in December; that of August in January…

The plough has never yet been tried here; all the ground is hoed, and (as Dod confesses) very incompetently turned up. Each convict labourer was obliged to hoe sixteen rods [80.5 metres] a day, so that in some places the earth was but just scratched over. The ground was left open for some months, to receive benefit from the sun and air; and on that newly cleared the trees were burnt, and the ashes dug in. I do not find that a succession of crops has yet been attempted; surely it would help to meliorate and improve the soil. Dod recommends strongly the culture of potatoes, on a large scale, and says that were they planted even as late as January they would answer, but this I doubt. He is more than ever of opinion that without a large supply of cattle nothing can be done. They have not at this time either horse, cow, or sheep here. I asked him how the stock they had was coming on. The fowls he said multiplied exceedingly, but the hogs neither thrived or increased in number, for want of food.[36]

By the time of his interview with Tench, Dodd had been in charge at Rose Hill for two years. In Phillip’s most urgent task—making the settlement self-sufficient—he had played the leading role.

‘A Great Loss’

Thieving by convicts had been a problem since the Indian corn (maize) had begun to ripen in early January 1791 and, on the night of 28 January, the thieves decided to plunder Dodd’s garden.Dodd was not about to let them get away with it, but he was no longer young, having turned 42 some months earlier; furthermore, he ‘had been ill for some time.’[37] We can imagine him jumping out of bed in the middle of the night wearing nothing more than his shirt and immediately chasing the miscreants ‘for three or four hours,’ and not giving up until any hope of finding them was exhausted — but, in so doing, exhausting himself. His habitual diligence in the end proved too much for him.[38] He ‘died of a decline’ that same night.[39]

All the people of Rose Hill, both free and convict, attended his burial, making it Australia’s first public Christian funeral.

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Not just a floral tribute to celebrate Dodd’s life, death, and public funeral on Australia Day 2016. A bushel of wheat and a large cabbage also commemorate Dodd’s achievements. Dodd is buried in Section 4, Row D, No.4 at St. John’s Cemetery, Parramatta. Photo: Michaela Ann Cameron (26 January 2016)

The humble servant to the ‘great man’ Governor Phillip ‘had acquired an ascendancy over the convicts’ in his own right, ‘which he preserved without being hated by them,’ David Collins would later reflect. ‘[H]e knew how to proportion their labour to their ability, and, by an attentive and quiet demeanor, had gained the approbation and countenance of the different officers who had been on duty at Rose Hill.’[40] Collins was not the only one to eulogise Dodd. There was another, of course, who knew Dodd far better.

Governor Phillip wrote to London that Dodd was ‘the only person in this settlement equal’ to the management of convicts, and that with his death ‘the settlement has sustained a great loss.’[41] Again he asked for more free settlers to be sent out: the job required ‘greater exertion and a closer attendance to the convicts to draw any very great advantage from their labour than what every man, though willing, may be capable of, and much more than the generality of men feel themselves bound to give for a salary of forty or fifty pounds a year.’[42] Three years’ experience ‘fully persuaded’ the Governor ‘that the sending out settlers, amongst who the greatest part of the convicts should be distributed and supported by Government for a certain time,…is necessary, but I am persuaded that a large body of convicts on the account of Government will not answer any good purpose until the country can support itself.’[43]

Suffering ill health, Phillip left for England on 11 December 1792.[44] Henry Dodd, who had followed him to the other side of the world, who had got him out of the ultimate ‘scrape’ of the colony starving, and whom Phillip had expected to bring back with him, stayed behind. His grave is ‘neither the oldest, nor the earliest undisturbed European grave but is the earliest known, undisturbed European grave with headstone in situ.’[45] The original inscription simply reads:

H E DODD

1791

A plaque now states:

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Henry Dodd’s First Fleeters’ memorial plaque. Photo: Michaela Ann Cameron (26 January 2016)

CITE THIS

David Morgan, “Henry Dodd: The Faithful Servant,” St. John’s Cemetery Project, (2016), https://stjohnscemeteryparramatta.org/bio/henry-dodd/, accessed [insert current date]

References

Michaela Ann Cameron, “The Crescent,Dictionary of Sydney, (2015), accessed 19 July 2016

David Collins, An Account of the English Colony of New South Wales, Vol. 1 (London, Printed for T. Cadell Jun. and W. Davies, in the Strand, 1798), accessed 11 July 2016

Judith Dunn, The Parramatta Cemeteries: St John’s, (Parramatta: Parramatta and District Historical Society, 1991)

B. H. Fletcher, “Phillip, Arthur (1738–1814),Australian Dictionary of Biography, (Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 1967), accessed online 5 June 2016

Bill Gammage, The Biggest Estate on Earth, (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2011)

Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1: Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914)

Hodnet Parish Council, ‘Hodnet – North Shropshire,’ accessed 11 July 2016.

Janice Ruse Huntington, My Mother Reread Me Tenderley; The Life of James Ruse, (Rydalmere: Valiant Efforts Pty Ltd, 2002)

Terry Kass, Carol Liston and John McClymont, Parramatta: A Past Revealed, (Parramatta: Parramatta City Council, 1996)

John McClymont, “Phillip’s Household: a background to his personal staff and their performance in the colony,” MSS held at Parramatta Heritage Centre, 1999.

Arthur Phillip et. al, The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, (London, Printed for John Stockdale, Piccadilly, 1789), Project Gutenberg Australia, accessed 11 July 2016

Colin G. Pooley and Jean Tumbull, “Migration and mobility in Britain from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Centuries,’ Local Population Studies, Vol. 57 (1996)

Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years: being a reprint of a narrative of the expedition to Botany Bay and a complete account of the settlement at Port Jackson, (Sydney, Library of Australian History and Royal Australian Historical Society, 1979)

George Worgan, Journal of a First Fleet Surgeon, (facs.), (Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1978)

NOTES

[1] GWF Hegel quoted in Terry Pinkard, Hegel: A Biography, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p.248

[2] Tom Sharpe, Porterhouse Blue, (London: Arrow Books, 2002), p.21

[3] Judith Dunn, The Parramatta Cemeteries: St John’s, (Parramatta: Parramatta and District Historical Society, 1991), p.185.

[4] See James Ruse’s reportedly self-carved headstone at St. John’s Catholic Cemetery, Campbelltown. For a photograph of the headstone, see Janice Ruse Huntington, My Mother Reread Me Tenderley; The Life of James Ruse, (Rydalmere: Valiant Efforts Pty Ltd, 2002), p.91. Ruse Huntington also quotes the headstone on p.28.

[5] Dodd also had a sister, Ann, who was baptised in 1753. There were three other siblings who died young: Mary (1746-1747), Joseph (1750-1751), and Sarah (1752-1752).

[6] hawdd ‘pleasant/peaceful’ + nant ‘valley/stream’ is usually interpreted as meaning ‘pleasant valley.’ University of Nottingham, “Key to English Place Names,” accessed 11 July 2016; Hodnet Parish Council, “Hodnet – North Shropshire,” accessed 11 July 2016.

[7] Colin G. Pooley and Jean Tumbull, “Migration and mobility in Britain from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Centuries,’ Local Population Studies, Vol. 57 (1996): 62

[8] John McClymont, “Phillip’s Household: a background to his personal staff and their performance in the colony,” MSS held at Parramatta Heritage Centre, 1999.

[9] B. H. Fletcher, “Phillip, Arthur (1738–1814),” Australian Dictionary of Biography, (Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 1967), accessed online 5 June 2016; John McClymont, “Governor Phillip Part 3 – the Peaceful Years 1763-1774,Parramatta Heritage Centre Research Services City of Parramatta Council, (Parramatta: Parramatta Heritage and Visitor Centre, 2014), accessed 19 July 2016, see also John McClymont, “Phillip’s Household: a background to his personal staff and their performance in the colony,” (1999) MSS held at Parramatta Heritage and Visitor Centre.

[10] B. H. Fletcher, ‘Phillip, Arthur (1738–1814)‘, Australian Dictionary of Biography, (Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 1967), accessed online 5 June 2016.

[11] John McClymont “Phillip’s Household: a background to his personal staff and their performance in the colony,” (1999) MSS held at Parramatta Heritage and Visitor Centre.

[12] George Worgan, Journal of a First Fleet Surgeon, (facs.), (Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1978), p.34, quoted in John McClymont “Phillip’s Household: a background to his personal staff and their performance in the colony,” (1999) MSS held at Parramatta Heritage and Visitor Centre.

[13] Arthur Phillip et. al, The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, (London, Printed for John Stockdale, Piccadilly, 1789), Project Gutenberg Australia, accessed 11 July 2016.

[14] Paul G Fidlon and RJ Ryan, (eds.), The Journal and Letters of Lt. Ralph Clark 1787–1792, (Sydney: Australian Documents Library, 1981), accessed 11 July 2016.

[15] John McClymont, “Governor Phillip Part 5 – Sydney 1788,Parramatta Heritage Centre Research Services City of Parramatta Council, (Parramatta: Parramatta Heritage and Visitor Centre, 2014),  accessed 19 July 2016, see also John McClymont, “Phillip’s Household: a background to his personal staff and their performance in the colony,” (1999) MSS held at Parramatta Heritage and Visitor Centre.

[16] Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney, 16 May 1788, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1: Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), p.35; Governor Phillip to W.W. Grenville, 14 July 1790, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1 Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), p.190

[17] Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years: being a reprint of a narrative of the expedition to Botany Bay and a complete account of the settlement at Port Jackson, (Sydney, Library of Australian History and Royal Australian Historical Society, 1979), p.135.

[18] Michaela Ann Cameron, “The Crescent,Dictionary of Sydney, (2015), accessed 19 July 2016

[19] Parramatta Heritage Centre, “The River Foreshore, Parramatta,” Parramatta Heritage Centre, (Parramatta: City of Parramatta Research Services, 2016), accessed 27 July 2016

[20] Terry Kass, Carol Liston and John McClymont, Parramatta: A Past Revealed (Parramatta: Parramatta City Council, 1996), 12.

[21] Terry Kass, Carol Liston and John McClymont, Parramatta: A Past Revealed (Parramatta: Parramatta City Council, 1996), 10–4.

[22] Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney, 12 February 1790, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1: Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), p.143

[23] George Worgan, Journal of a First Fleet Surgeon, (facs), (Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1978), quoted in Bill Gammage, The Biggest Estate on Earth, (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2011), pp. 244-5.

[24] David Collins, An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, Vol. 1 (London; T Cadell Jnr, and W Davies, 1798), 45, accessed 27 July 2016

[25] Terry Kass, Carol Liston and John McClymont, Parramatta: A Past Revealed (Parramatta: Parramatta City Council, 1996), 14; Michaela Ann Cameron, “The Crescent,” Dictionary of Sydney (2015)  accessed 27 July 2016; Parramatta Park, “World Heritage Listing,Parramatta Park, (2015)  accessed 27 July 2016

[26] Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years: being a reprint of a narrative of the expedition to Botany Bay and a complete account of the settlement at Port Jackson, (Sydney, Library of Australian History and Royal Australian Historical Society, 1979), p.135.

[27] David Collins, 14 July 1789, Chapter VII, An Account of the English Colony of New South Wales, Vol. 1 (London, Printed for T. Cadell Jun. and W. Davies, in the Strand, 1798), accessed 11 July 2016

[29] David Collins, October 1789, Chapter VIII, An Account of the English Colony of New South Wales, Vol. 1 (London, Printed for T. Cadell Jun. and W. Davies, in the Strand, 1798), accessed 11 July 2016

[30] Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney, 12 February 1790, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1: Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), p. 146

[31] Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney, 12 February 1790, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1: Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), p. 146

[32] David Collins, November-December 1789, Chapter VIII, An Account of the English Colony of New South Wales, Vol. 1 (London, Printed for T. Cadell Jun. and W. Davies, in the Strand, 1798), accessed 11 July 2016

[33] Governor Phillip to W.W. Grenville, 14 July 1790, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1 Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), p.190

[34] Governor Phillip to W.W. Grenville, 14 July 1790, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1 Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), p.195

[35] Governor Phillip to W.W. Grenville, 14 July 1790, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1 Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), pp.190, 195

[36] Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years: being a reprint of a narrative of the expedition to Botany Bay and a complete account of the settlement at Port Jackson, (Sydney, Library of Australian History and Royal Australian Historical Society, 1979), p.193

[37] David Collins, 28 February 1791, Chapter XII An Account of the English Colony of New South Wales, Vol. 1 (London, Printed for T. Cadell Jun. and W. Davies, in the Strand, 1798), accessed 11 July 2016

[38] David Collins, 28 February 1791, Chapter XII An Account of the English Colony of New South Wales, Vol. 1 (London, Printed for T. Cadell Jun. and W. Davies, in the Strand, 1798), accessed 11 July 2016

[39] David Collins, 28 February 1791, Chapter XII An Account of the English Colony of New South Wales, Vol. 1 (London, Printed for T. Cadell Jun. and W. Davies, in the Strand, 1798), accessed 11 July 2016

[40] David Collins, 28 February 1791, Chapter XII An Account of the English Colony of New South Wales, Vol. 1 (London, Printed for T. Cadell Jun. and W. Davies, in the Strand, 1798), accessed 11 July 2016

[41] Governor Phillip to W.W. Grenville, 4 March 1791, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1 Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), p. 248.

[42] Governor Phillip to W.W. Grenville, 4 March 1791, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1 Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), p. 248.

[43] Governor Phillip to W.W. Grenville, 4 March 1791, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol.1 Governors’ Despatches to and from England, (Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, 1914), p. 248.

[44] B. H. Fletcher, “Phillip, Arthur (1738–1814),” Australian Dictionary of Biography, (Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 1967), accessed online 8 July 2016 http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/phillip-arthur-2549/text3471

[45] Judith Dunn, The Parramatta Cemeteries: St John’s, (Parramatta: Parramatta and District Historical Society, 1991), p.16

© Copyright 2016 David Morgan